Friday, April 27, 2012

AMJA Senior Committee Member: Female Genital Mutilation Is 'an Honor' per Islam

Dr. Hatem al-Haj, addressing
Islamic Institute of Orange County,
June 2009 (link)
[Update, 23 May: Apparently a petition against Dr. al-Haj was started by a Jihad Watch reader after this translation was published on Jihad Watch, and the Mayo Clinic responded by firing Dr. al-Haj. Dr. al-Haj since published a clarification of his position on female circumcision, in which he claimed that he has "always condemned female genital mutilation." He said instead that he only supports "a subtype of Female Genital Cutting FGC, a harmless procedure called the ritual nick." However, according to the World Health Organization and U.S. federal law, any type of female circumcision is considered female genital mutilation. That is why I referred to it as such in this post. He also complained that my translation was excerpted and left out a lot of what he said on the topic. In my translation I was mainly concerned with Dr. al-Haj's explanation of the ruling of Islamic law on female circumcision/FGM, which is why I translated only the portion of the paper that dealt with that specifically. He is of course welcome to produce his own English-language version of the entire paper if he would like to make it available to the English-speaking audience.

Unfortunately for Dr. al-Haj, his position on FGM may not be the only one that is problematic for him as a pediatrician practicing in the United States. He also produced an Arabic-language post on child marriage entitled, "Yes, He (PBUH) Married Her at Age Nine, and There Is Nothing Wrong with That," which I hope to have time to translate soon.]

A couple of weeks ago I posted a translation of a paper by Association of Muslim Jurists of America (AMJA) senior committee member Dr. Hatem al-Haj, PhD, MD, in which he warned American Muslims against working in law enforcement in our 'infidel' nation (see here for more details). Now in my latest translation, Dr. al-Haj explains why female circumcision is recommended and even 'an honor' for women. This is the same practice which is popularly known as female genital mutilation (FGM) due to the pain it causes women. The World Health Organization (WHO) asserts that "the procedure has no health benefits for women," and causes a range of health problems including "severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth."

Yet Dr. al-Haj, a medical doctor and fellow at the American Academy of Pediatrics, ignores FGM's detrimental effects on women's health, and instead argues that it is 'an honor' for women. He justifies this position by referring repeatedly to the words of classical Islamic scholars from the four schools of mainstream Sunni Islamic thought, all of which attest to FGM's legitimacy under Islam. He also refers to the words of the Prophet Muhammad himself, who reportedly counselled people in his day on how to perform FGM in a way that would be "more beautiful to behold and better for [the woman's] husband."

Thanks again to the Center for Security Policy for their assistance and expertise on AMJA.

Below is my excerpted translation of the 41-page Arabic-language paper by Dr. Hatem al-Haj entitled "Circumcision of Girls: Jurisprudence and Medicine" (see the original here and here):
The ruling on circumcision: Scholars have differed on the ruling on circumcision. They have agreed on its legitimacy for both sexes, but beyond that they have differed. Some--most famously the Shafi’ites--believe that it is obligatory for both sexes. Some believe it is obligatory for men only, and some believe it is recommended for both. At the very least it can be said that for women it is an honor, and for men it is sunnah [i.e. it is in accord with the tradition of Muhammad].

There are many hadiths on circumcision, some of which will be presented here along with the commentary of some scholars:

From Abi-Hurayra, who attributed it to the Prophet: “Five (acts of) al-fitrah [Islamic law or way of nature] are circumcision, shaving pubic hair, plucking armpit hair, trimming fingernails, and clipping the mustache.” Also from Abi-Hurayra: “The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Abraham was circumcised when he was 80 years old’.”’ Allah said: “So We have taught thee the inspired (Message), Follow the ways of Abraham the True in Faith” [Qur’an 16:123]. Also recorded in a hadith is the saying of (Muhammad) to a man who converted to Islam: “Remove your infidel hair and be circumcised.”

Muhammad also said regarding circumcision: “If you touch the two circumcisions, you must wash.” Here is evidence that women were circumcised, and therefore any of the hadiths on circumcision which do not specify men or women, can be assumed to apply to both.

From Sa’id bin Jabir: “Ibn ‘Abbas was asked, “How old were you when the Prophet (PBUH) died?" He replied, "At that time I had been circumcised. People (in those days) did not circumcise men until they reached puberty.” From the hadith of Umm ‘Atiyah--who used to circumcise girls--the Messenger of Allah said to her, “Reduce it, but do not remove too much, because it is more beautiful to behold and better for her husband.” This is the most explicit evidence in the hadiths of Muhammad for female circumcision being legitimate and even recommended. From Ibn ‘Abbas, attributing it to the Prophet: “Circumcision is sunnah for men and an honor for women.” This was narrated by al-Bayhaqi, and its attribution is weak.

Ibn al-Mundhir narrated from Abi-Barza: “We asked the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) about an uncircumcised man making pilgrimage to the Ka’aba. He replied, ‘No, not until he’s circumcised’.” This was considered a weak hadith by Ibn al-Mundhir and others.

There’s no doubt that among these hadiths there are those which are sound but do not explicitly command or urge women to become circumcised. There are also those which are met with disagreement by scholars, and these hadiths are more explicit in confirming the legitimacy of female circumcision. But the hadiths on the laws of al-fitrah which mention circumcision--and these are sound--do not mean that it is done on men only and not women. It is certain that circumcision includes both men and women, as is clearly stated in the hadith about touching the two circumcisions.

Below are words from scholars on the ruling on circumcision:

The Hanafis: Al-Zayla’i said: “The general ruling is that circumcision is sunnah, and is one of the trademarks of Islam. In fact, if the people of Egypt or some land decided to abandon its practice, the Imam would make war against them, for it cannot be abandoned except by necessity... Female circumcision is not sunnah, but it is an honor for men because it is more pleasing during sex” [ellipses in original].

The Malikites: From al-Kharshi’s brief summary of Khalil: “Its ruling (i.e. circumcision) is that it is sunnah for men, and it cuts off the foreskin. It is recommended for women, and is called khifad [reduction].”

The Shafi’ites: From [Asna al-Mutalib]: “Circumcision is obligatory (at puberty). The reasoning for this is the saying of the Almighty: “So We have taught thee the inspired (Message), Follow the ways of Abraham the True in Faith” [Qur’an 16:123]. In Abraham’s religion, circumcision was present. Also in the two Sahihs: “He was circumcised when he was eighty years old.” In Sahih Ibn Hibban, and in al-Hakim it was said 120 years, and it was also said 70 years. Also it was narrated by Abu-Dawud: “(The Prophet) (PBUH) ordered a man who converted to Islam to be circumcised.” They said that since he cut off a member which could not be replaced, it had to be obligatory like cutting off the hand. Since the man was injured during the process, he feared it. If it were not obligatory for him, then it would not have been permissible. This is unlike the circumcision of little boys, crazy people, and those who cannot endure it, because the first are too young to be required to do anything, and the last are harmed by it.” Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmu’: “Circumcision is obligatory for our men and women. This was stated by many of the salaf, as al-Khatabi relates. Ahmad was one of those who said it was obligatory. Malik and Abu-Hanifa said that it was sunnah for everyone. This was related by al-Rafi’i. He also related that (circumcision) is obligatory for men and sunnah for women. These were the two approaches of Shadhan, and of the sound and famous school of thought which was penned by al-Shafi’i, in which the multitude of scholars declared that circumcision is obligatory for men and women.”

The Hanbalis: From Ibn Muflih’s Furu’ [body of rules and regulations for man’s behavior]: “(According to Ahmad), circumcision is obligatory on all but women, for whom it is recommended. Our Shaykh said, ‘It is obligatory because cleanliness and prayer are obligatory’.” Ibn Qudama said: “Circumcision is a duty for men, and for women it is an honor, but it is not obligatory. This has been stated by many scholars.” Ahmad said: “The man is more difficult, because if the man is not circumcised, then the skin dangles over the [penis] and cannot be cleaned. But the woman is easier.”

The al-Mawsu’a al-Fiqhia (“The Encyclopedia of Jurisprudence”) summarizes scholars’ opinions on circumcision as follows:

“The ruling on circumcision: Scholars differ on circumcision as follows: First, the Hanafis and Malikites--and very rarely the Shafi’ites--hold to the opinion of what Ahmad said, that circumcision is sunnah for men but not a duty. It is one of the acts of al-fitrah, and one of the rituals of Islam. If the people of a particular land decided together to abandon its practice, the Imam would make war against them, just like if they abandoned the call to prayer. This also represents what the Malikites think about circumcision of women. Hanafis and Hanbalis consider female circumcision to be an honor and not sunnah. It is said by some Hanafis that it is also sunnah for [women], and some say that it is recommended. … Second, the Shafi’ites and Hanbalis, as is also stated by Sahnoun from the Malikites, believe that circumcision is a duty for both men and women. … Third, this is written by Ibn Qudama in al-Mughni, that circumcision is a duty for men, and for women it is an honor but not a duty” [ellipses in original].


It appears that for male circumcision the most correct view is that it is obligatory, owing to the saying of Muhammad to the man who converted to Islam: “Remove your infidel hair and be circumcised.” This was obligatory--there was no alternative.

Regarding women, perhaps the most correct view is that it is recommended, however there is consensus that it is (at least) legitimate. Muhammad also endorsed it, as was narrated in the hadith of Umm ‘Atiyah, who used to circumcise girls. He said to her: “Reduce it, but do not remove too much, because it is more beautiful to behold and better for her husband.” He also said, “If you touch the two circumcisions, you must wash.” This shows that female circumcision was prevalent during his day, and he did not repudiate it. Nor did he stipulate anything else regarding female circumcision.

Perhaps the saying that it is (only) recommended is due to the pain women must go through to carry out the acts of al-fitrah, such as circumcision, as stated in the sound hadith. But as we mentioned, this is not evidence of it being confined only to men. The term circumcision was used for both men and women during Muhammad’s time. But it is clear that performing circumcision must be preferable to not performing it, especially when one considers that circumcision includes both pain and revealing one’s nakedness. Thus if there was no benefit to it, the Messenger of Allah would not have agreed to it. However there is still no evidence for making it obligatory. The fact that the Messenger of Allah agreed to it despite the pain and discovering one’s nakedness is not evidence for making it obligatory. Instead, this is evidence for preferring the action over not doing it, as we stated. (Muhammad’s) command to Umm ‘Atiyah is not a command to all women to (be circumcised), but rather he was regulating its practice. He was not telling her not to do it, he was telling her not to go too far and injure the women.

His command to the man who converted to Islam does not apply to women. Even though the principle is that “women are men’s sisters”, and women are often included when addressing men and vice versa, that only applies when there is no reason to differentiate between them. Here the issue is different for men and women. The man’s foreskin could trap urine at the end of it and affect his cleanliness. The issue is not the same for women. Therefore it is appropriate for this to be stressed more for men, and this is apparent in the words of scholars and the works of the ummah.

I have summed up the words of Muhammad and of scholars to show that circumcision is legitimate, and that the principal issue in the study is the limits of circumcision.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Video: Moroccan Jihadi Preacher Calls on All Muslims to Leave France, Compares Europe to a Toilet

As seen in the subtitled video above, Moroccan Islamic preacher Shaykh 'Umar al-Hadushi (variant: Omar al-Haddouchi) urges all Muslims to leave France in a video released just over a week ago, citing as reasons for doing so France's banning of hijabs and restrictions on the call to prayer. Al-Hadushi further explains that Islam is to be exalted above all, and never to be lower than anything else. Al-Hadushi additionally compared non-Muslim countries to a toilet, where you go to take care of business and then you leave.

Al-Hadushi provides several conditions which must be present for a Muslim to reside in a non-Muslim country, the most important of which is that he must be in a position to influence those around him, but he is not to be influenced by others.

It is important to note that while al-Hadushi will probably be ignored by the mainstream media or marginalized as some crazy jihadi preacher, the attitudes and beliefs underlying his opinions are really no different than those expressed by the Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America (AMJA) in the two papers translated here over the past few weeks (see here and here). AMJA essentially repeats the same idea that Muslims are not here in America to be influenced by others or to become part of the melting pot society, but rather are here to try to move others toward Islam and establish their law as supreme. That is their only purpose.

Thanks to Vlad Tepes for adding the subtitles into the video for me and publishing it (see his post on this here).

Below is my excerpted translation of the original 14-minute video, which was used to subtitle the video above (original Arabic video here):
I say unto my brothers in France, I love you as you have loved me. I also give unto you my counsel, which is primarily for myself. [...] 
I say unto you, then, that you must leave. You must leave the land of the polytheists. The Prophet (PBUH) has said: “Do not gaze into their fire.” He also said, “None of us reside with the polytheists.” 
He once found a woman who had been slain, and he said, “I have nothing to do with any Muslim living among the polytheists.” Therefore we should not increase the numbers of the polytheists. The Prophet (PBUH) said in the two Sahihs also in the hadith of A’isha, “An army will invade the Ka’aba, and when the invaders reach al-Bayda’ the ground will sink and swallow the whole army.” I said, "O Allah's Apostle! How will they sink into the ground while amongst them will be their markets and the people not belonging to them?" The Prophet replied, "All of those people will sink but they will be resurrected and judged according to their intentions." Islamic scholars say that the benefit of this hadith is that it forbids increasing the numbers of the polytheists. 
Therefore if a Muslim is unable to declare and openly observe the rituals of his religion in a certain country, then he must emigrate from that country. This emigration does not cease until the Day of Resurrection. There are different types of emigration, for the Prophet (PBUH) said, “There is no emigration after the conquest--only jihad and good intentions.” In other words, from Mecca to Medina, because Mecca was conquered and became the house of Islam. But there still remains another emigration which does not cease, like jihad does not cease until the Day of Resurrection. 
Therefore, you can emigrate from a country which insults the Islamic scholars. Emigrate from a country in which the shari’a cannot be applied. Emigrate from a country which bans the hijab, or the call to prayer. The very first ritual which should be witnessed by the people is that of the call to prayer. But France bans the call to prayer, and now bans the hijab. Therefore you must now flee from that country. 
Some scholars even say if a man travels to the land of the polytheists for trade, or work, if he had to travel there, the following conditions must be present. First, he must possess sound doctrine. He must be armed with sound doctrine. Second, he must be able to outwardly observe the rituals of his religion. Third, he must not be performing humiliating work, such as a garbage collector or sweeper, for this is never permissible. This is something polytheists should do, for Islam should always be above, never below. 
The most important condition which scholars have imposed, is that Muslims should influence others, and not be influenced by others. This is in the situation that he is compelled to go there for work or study, something which is not present in Muslim lands. If he is armed with sound doctrine, he can influence the polytheists, and he cannot be influenced. I mean, no one can influence him to become a Christian, Allah forbid, or worse. [...] 
I also say unto you that living among the polytheists is like what a man does in the toilet. He goes in to take care of his business then leaves. Does anybody live in the toilet? The answer is no. [...] It's the same with the lands of the polytheists. [...]

Thursday, April 12, 2012

Mainstream American Muslim Group Warns Muslims Against Working in Law Enforcement, Becoming "Pleased with a Legal System That Does Not Come from Allah"

The Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America (AMJA) cautioned American Muslims in a 22-page Arabic-language paper in 2008 against working in law enforcement in countries which do not rule by Allah's dictates. One of their main concerns was that such work might cause Muslims to gain love and respect for secular laws:
...there are many evils which result from working in law enforcement, the greatest of which is compelling people to obey rulings which do not come from Allah. It could also cause reverence and love for these rulings to enter the heart of the police officer, and perhaps spread to the hearts of his family members and other Muslims who see him at the mosque or even Muslims in general. They could lose conviction of governance by Allah, and become pleased with a legal system that does not come from Allah. (italics added)
AMJA provided some allowances for Muslims to work in certain law enforcement professions, fearing that a lack of Muslim representation in this sector could bring negative effects for the Muslim community. They also reasoned that Muslims working as police officers might be able to use their positions to help the Muslim community, such as helping out with traffic near their mosques and protecting their mosques. Still, there was concern that some of these might be required to enforce laws contrary to the shari'a, such as "arrest[ing] a Muslim man whose wife said he 'raped' her."

The AMJA paper specifically forbade Muslims from working for the FBI or in national security positions, due to their alleged arbitrary targeting of certain Muslims for "their political beliefs, charity work, or some of their convictions under the shari'a"--an apparent reference to counterterrorism investigations against Muslim suspects.

The paper also made clear that Muslims are to seek justice not in secular courts, but in Islamic courts which are compliant with their shari'a:  "It is not permissible to pursue justice in the man-made (i.e. non-Islamic) judiciary, except where there is an absence of a shari'a-compliant substitute capable of restoring one's rights and working out one's grievances" (see my translation of another AMJA paper on working in the judiciary here).

Throughout the paper it is made clear that the duty of Muslims is not to uphold and respect the laws of the land in which they reside, but rather to do everything in their power to make the laws of Allah--the shari'a--supreme:
[Muslims are] to seek through legal means which exist in the countries in which they reside to make it possible for themselves to seek legal recourse in their shar'ia, and (not only) for personal affairs.
The duty to make Islam supreme comes above all, even preserving one's life:
We must remember that preserving the religion comes before preserving one’s self, mind, wealth, honor, or offspring. [...] But if saving [the individual's] life destroys Islam, then saving Islam comes first, even if it means the individual is destroyed. This is the case with jihad against the infidels, and the killing of apostates, and so forth.
It is worth stressing once again that AMJA--whose stated purpose is to "clarify the rulings of the sharia which are relevant for those who live in America"--is a mainstream American Muslim organization. Their membership list contains a large number of highly-influential American imams and Muslim leaders, including Muhammad al-Majid of the Adam Center in Virginia; Hussein Hamed Hassan, director of the financial consultancy firm which advises Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan Chase, and other large American banking institutions; Zulfiqar Ali Shah, former president of Islamic Circle of North America and current executive director of the Fiqh Council of North America; and the author of this paper, Dr. Hatem al-Haj, MD, PhD, a fellow at the American Academy of Pediatrics, and founder and president of "Building Blocks of Islam."

A longer list of some of their prominent American members follows:
  • Hussein Hamad Hassan (Chairman of the Board at AMJA), Director of Dar al-Sharia Legal and Financial Consultancy (Dubai) (firm which advises Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan Chase, and others);
  • Mohammad AlMajid, Imam of Adam Center (Virginia);
  • Mohammad Naeem AlSael, University of Texas, American Open University (AOU) (Virginia);
  • Waleed Basyouni, North American Imam Federation (NAIF) (Arizona), Texas Dawah Convention, AlMaghrib Institute (Texas);
  • Ahmad Al Soway'ey Shleibak, Professor at AOU;
  • Al Sayed Abd Al Halim Muhammad Hussein, President of Al-Eman Islamic Association of New York;
  • Hatem AlHaj, Sharia Academy of America (Florida), Albert Lea Medical Center (Minnesota), NAIF, Islamic Jurisprudence Council of Minnesota;
  • Abdel Azim AlSiddiq, Professor at Islamic American University (IAU), Imam/Director of Aqsa Islamic Society;
  • Deya-ud-Deen Eberle, Lecturer at AOU;
  • Ahmad Al Sherbiny Nabhan, Professor at AOU;
  • Ahmad Abd Al-Khaliq, Imam of the Islamic Center in New Jersey;
  • Gamal Helmy, Chairman of Religious Affairs in the Muslim Association of Virginia (MAV);
  • Gamal Zarbozo, Islamic writer and researcher in Denver, Colorado;
  • Haitham Abu Ridwan Barazanji, Imam of the Islamic Center in San Pitt, Tampa, FL;
  • Ibrahim Dremali, Imam of the Islamic Center of Boca Raton, Florida;
  • Ibrahim Zidan, Imam of Al-Huda Islamic Center (New York);
  • Mohammad Faqih, Khateeb and Lecturer in Columbus, Ohio;
  • Mostafa Tolbah, Imam of Islamic Center in Detroit, Michigan;
  • Muhammad Abo Al Yosr Al Beyanony, Imam of Islamic Center in Raleigh, North Carolina;
  • Muhammad Sayed Adly, President of Imams and Duat Association of South and North Carolina, Imam of Masjid Al-Muslimeen in Columbia, South Carolina;
  • Muhammad Muhammad Musa, Imam of Islamic Center in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan;
  • Mukhtar Kartus, Member of Board of Trustees and Daia in Islamic Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan;
  • Mustafa Shahin, Lecturer at IAU;
  • Mustafa Balkhir, MA student at AOU;
  • Mustafa Al-Turk, Chairman of Islamic Organization, Michigan;
  • Omar Shahin, President of Executive Committee of NAIF, Lecturer at AOU;
  • Sadeq Muhammad Al Hassan, Director of Masjid Annur, Sacramento, California;
  • Samy Muhammad Masaud, Imam of Aleman Mosque in New York City;
  • Tho Al Fokkar Ali Shah (variant: Zulfiqar Ali Shah), President (Former) of Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA), Executive Director of Fiqh Council of North America, Religious Director of Islamic Society of Milwaukee;
  • Yassir Fazaqa, Imam of Islamic Center of Orange County, California;
  • Waleed Al-Maneese, Dar-al-Farooq Islamic Center (Minnesota), Vice President of Islamic University of Minnesota, AOU, NAIF;
  • Muwaffak Al Ghaylany, Islamic Center in Grand Blank City (Minnesota), Shari`a Academy in America (Florida), NAIF;
  • Main Al-Qudah,  MAS Katy Center (Texas), AOU, Islamic American University (Minnesota), Al-Yarmook University (Iraq);
  • Salah Alsawy, Institute of Arabic and Islamic Sciences (Virginia), AOU, Sharia Academy (Florida), Al-Azhar University (Egypt), Umm Al Qura University (Saudi Arabia); and
  • Muhammad Adam Alsheikh, Al Rahmah Mosque (Maryland), Sudanese courts.
Sincere thanks to the Center for Security Policy for their assistance in discovering this document and facilitating its translation and production.

Translating Jihad's full translation of the AMJA paper follows (see the original Arabic-language paper here):
Title Page:

Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America

The role of professions and jobs in the West which are intermixed with that which is forbidden:  What is permissible and what is forbidden

Fifth meeting

April 2008

Title of the study:  Working in Law Enforcement in Non-Islamic Countries

Prepared by Dr. Hatim al-Haj
Member of the Permanent Fatwa Council of the Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America
Member of the faculty of the Shar’ia Academy

Page 2:

Eighth Resolution: Working in the Judiciary and Everything Else Which Falls Under It Outside the Lands of Islam

Allah sent his Apostle and revealed His book so that the people could be established in equity. Their path to that equity is to settle their differences through His laws, executing them in absolute justice and rejecting all the whims of men which conflict with them. It is not permissible to pursue justice in the man-made (i.e. non-Islamic) judiciary, except where there is an absence of a shari’a-compliant substitute capable of restoring one’s rights and working out one’s grievances. (This is also on the condition that) the individual’s demands before the judiciary are legitimate, and he does not take from its rulings anything except that which agrees with the shar'ia. If it is decreed that he should receive that which he has no right to (per the shari’a), he must not take it, for the ruling of the judge cannot make permissible that which is forbidden, nor make forbidden that which is permissible. The judge discovers (law) but does not create it.

Islamic communities must settle their disputes in righteousness, under the framework of the arbitration of the shar'ia. (They are also) to seek through legal means which exist in the countries in which they reside to make it possible for themselves to seek legal recourse in their shar'ia, and (not only) for personal affairs.

Working as an attorney is legitimate as long as the attorney is convinced of the justice and legitimacy of that which he who granted him power of attorney asks him to do.

Page 3:

The Study


In the name of Allah and praise be to Allah. We praise him and seek his aid and forgiveness, and seek refuge in him from the sins of our souls. He who is guided by Allah is not misled, and he who is misled has no guidance for him. I testify that there is no god but Allah. I testify that Muhammad is his slave and messenger. He received his message from Allah, and he fulfilled that message. He declared to us the laws of our religion in all aspects of life, so that the People of the Book envied us for his declaration. May Allah grant peace and blessings to him, his family, his companions, and all those who follow his religion until the day of judgment. Amen.

A third of Muslims in our day live as minorities in non-Islamic countries, while two-thirds--or most of them--live under non-Islamic regimes, even though they live in Muslim countries.

Both of these groups are subject to man-made laws, which don't agree--or some of what is in them doesn't agree--with the Islamic shar'ia.

The stages of working with these laws begins with legislation, which is the work of the members of parliament or congress. Then there's the stage of ruling by their laws, which is the job of judges. Then there's the stage of executing and enforcing these laws, which is the job of the police.

These police execute that which is incumbent upon them, and don't have the freedom of the judge--which is relative freedom--as it was in the early history of Islam. So here the Muslim must ask himself if it is permissible for him to work as a police officer under these regimes or even those non-Islamic countries!

In my study I will specifically deal with the issue of working as a police officer in non-Islamic countries. I will divide the study into an introduction, in which I will mention the current situation for Muslim communities in non-Islamic countries. I will also describe the work of law enforcement in Western countries, especially in the United States. Then I will lay out the pros and cons of participating in this work. Then I will mention the general ruling on referring judgment to law other than the shari’a of Allah. Finally I will present evidence for making it permissible or forbidden, and I will follow this with an assessment and a recommendation.